Glossary of Magnet Terminology
An anisotropic material has different properties in different directions. For example, wood which has a grain is stronger in some one direction than another. Like wood, neodymium magnets are also anisotropic. Even before it is magnetized, a neodymium magnet has a “preferred” magnetization direction. See our article All About Magnetization Direction for more info.
Neodymium magnets are made with a preferred magnetization direction which can not be changed. These materials are either manufactured in the influence of strong magnetic fields or pressed a specific way, and can only be magnetized through the preferred axis.
The result of plotting the value of the magnetic field (H) that is applied against the resultant flux density (B) achieved. This curve describes the qualities of any magnetic material.
The temperature at which a magnet loses all of its magnetic properties.
The second quadrant of the hysteresis loop, generally describing the behavior of magnetic characteristics in actual use. Also known as the B-H Curve.
A magnetizing force, typically in the direction opposite to the force used to magnetize it in the first place. Shock, vibration and temperature can also be demagnetizing forces.
A plot of magnetizing force versus resultant magnetization (also called a B/H curve) of the material as it is successively magnetized to saturation, demagnetized, magnetized in the opposite direction and finally remagnetized. With continued recycles, this plot will be a closed loop which completely describes the characteristics of the magnetic material.
The first quadrant of the loop (that is +X and +Y) is called the magnetization curve. It is of interest because it shows how much magnetizing force must be applied to saturate a magnet. The second quadrant (-X and +Y) is called the Demagnetization Curve.
A material that can be magnetized along any axis or direction (a magnetically unoriented material). The opposite of Anisotropic Magnet.
Partial demagnetization of the magnet, caused by exposure to high or low temperatures, external fields, shock, vibration, or other factors. These losses are only recoverable by remagnetization. Magnets can be stabilized against irreversible losses by partial demagnetization induced by temperature cycles or by external magnetic fields.
An area where the lines of flux are concentrated.
Also known as maximum service temperature, is the temperature at which the magnet may be exposed to continuously with no significant long-range instability or structural changes.
The north pole of a magnet is the one attracted to the magnetic north pole of the earth. This north-seeking pole is identified by the letter N. By accepted convention, the lines of flux travel from the north pole to the south pole.
Used to describe the direction of magnetization of a material. Orientation Direction – The direction in which an anisotropic magnet should be magnetized in order to achieve optimum magnetic properties.
Materials that are not attracted to magnetic fields (wood, plastic, aluminum, etc.)
A magnet that retains its magnetism after it is removed from a magnetic field. A permanent magnet is “always on”. Neodymium magnets are permanent magnets.
An area where the lines of magnetic flux are concentrated.
Most neodymium magnets are plated or coated in order to protect the magnet material from corrosion. Neodymium magnets are mostly composed of neodymium, iron, and boron. The iron in the magnet will rust if it is not sealed from the environment by some sort of plating or coating. Most of the neodymium magnets that we stock are triple plated in nickel-copper-nickel, but some are plated in gold, silver, or black nickel, while others are coated in epoxy, plastic or rubber.
Commonly used to describe high energy magnet material such as NdFeB (Neodymium-Iron-Boron) and SmCo (Samarium-Cobalt).
The south pole of a magnet is the one attracted to the south pole of the earth. This south-seeking pole is identified by the letter S. By accepted convention, the lines of flux travel from the north pole to the south pole.
The process of exposing a magnet or a magnetic assembly to elevated temperatures or external magnetic fields to demagnetize it to a predetermined level. Once done the magnet will suffer no future degradation when exposed to that level of demagnetizing influence.
The magnetic field strength at the surface of the magnet as measured by a Gauss meter.
A factor that is used to calculate the decrease in magnetic flux corresponding to an increase in operating temperature. The loss in magnetic flux is recovered when the operating temperature is decreased.
The S.I. unit for magnetic induction (flux density). One Tesla equals 10,000 Gauss.
The S.I. unit for total magnetic flux. The practical unit of magnetic flux. It is the amount of magnetic flux which, when linked at a uniform rate with a single-turn electric circuit during an interval of 1 second, will induce in this circuit an electromotive force of 1 volt.